Origins Volleyball

At the beginning of its discovery, sports volleyball game is named Mintonette. Sports Mintonette was first discovered by a physical education instructor (director of Phsycal Education) named William G. Morgan at the YMCA on February 9, 1895, in Holyoke, Massachusetts (United States).

William G. Morgan was born in Lockport, New York in 1870, and died in 1942. YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) is an organization dedicated to teach the basic teachings of Christianity to the youth, as has been taught by Jesus. This organization was established on June 6, 1884 in London, England by George Williams.

After meeting with James Naismith (basketball sports a creator who was born on November 6, 1861, and died on November 28, 1939), Morgan created a new sport called Mintonette. As with James Naismith, William G. Morgan also dedicated his life as a physical education instructor. William G. Morgan is also a graduate of Springfield College of the YMCA, to create this Mintonette game four years after the creation of sports games basketball by James Naismith. Sports Mintonette game is actually a game that was created by combining several types of games. Exactly, the game was created by adopting Mintonette four different characters into one game sports, namely basketball, baseball, tennis, and the last is handball (handball). At first, this game was created specifically for YMCA members who are not young anymore, so this game-were made not as active as a basketball game.

Change name Mintonette into volleyball (volleyball) occurred in the year 1896, on his first match demonstration at the International YMCA Training School. In early 1896, Dr. Luther Halsey Gulick (Director of the Professional Training School of Physical Education as well as Executive Director of the Department of Physical Education of the International Committee of the YMCA) invited and asked Morgan to demonstrate a new game she had created in the new campus stadium. At a conference held at the campus YMCA, Springfield was also attended by the entire physical education instructor. On the occasion, Morgan brings the two teams in each of the five-member team. Both teams are headed by a Major and Chief of Holyoke fire brigades.

On that occasion, Morgan also explained that the game is a game that can be played inside or outside the room with very liberal. And according to his explanation at that time, this game can also be played by many players. There is no limit to the number of players became standard in the game. While the goal of the game is maintained to keep moving the ball high over the net, from one area to another (the opponent).

Demonstration game hosted by both teams, as well as explanations that have been submitted by the Morgan-have also brought a change in Mintonette. The first change that happened in the game came on his name. At the suggestion of Professor Alfred T. Halstead is also watching and paying attention to demonstration and explanation of Morgan, the name was changed to Mintonette-Volleyball (volleyball). Selection of Volleyball as a substitute name-even Mintonette not done without consideration. Volleyball The name was chosen based on the major movements contained in that game, the movement hit the ball before the ball fell to the ground (volleyball). At first, the name was spelled-Volleyball separately (two words), namely "Volley Ball." Then in 1952, the Administrative Committee USVBA (United States Volleyball Association) chose to spell the name in one word, namely "Volleyball". USVBA volleyball is a sport of unity contained in the United States. This association was first established in 1928, and currently USVBA better known by the name of USAV (USA Voleyball). After the demonstration, the YMCA committee promised to learn the rules of the game that has been written and submitted by Morgan.

Some of the first rules were written by Morgan is the use of a net 6 feet 6 inches tall (this size is adjusted with an average height of Americans who in the 19th century turns out to be shorter), field size 7.6 x 15.2 m2, and played by some players. In the old rules, the game is divided into nine innings. In each round, each team the opportunity to perform the services (hitting the ball early in the game / hit the ball first). In addition, the regulations were first made there was no limit contact between the player with the ball, before the ball can be hit and move to an area opponent. If players make mistakes while performing service, he was still allowed to perform the second service. While beating the ball toward the net would be considered a violation and result in lost scores, except during the first servicing. Because after the first service, there is still a chance to do a second service. Finally, they modify and publish the regulation in July 1896.

Development Volleyball

One of the most vital equipment in volleyball game is the ball. However, when making that first ball, to play volleyball still be a debate. There are several sources that stated that the official volleyball or standards were first made in 1896 by Spalding. Meanwhile, some other sources state that the standard of volleyball was first made in 1900.

Over time, volley-ball game continues to experience the changes, both in terms of game rules, game techniques, and skill of the players. Calculation of scores changed in about 1917. Limitation score in the first 21 points, then it has been converted into 15 points. The changes also occurred in 1920, namely in terms of game rules. In 1920 it had introduced the rule "three punches" and has also established limits on the back row attack.

The development of volleyball game that continues to progress, it has been more and more captured the interest of sports lovers in the world. Having successfully introduced the volleyball game to the whole society the United States, volley-ball games are increasingly spread its wings to countries outside the U.S.. In 1900, Canada has become the first foreign country to adopt the volleyball game. The spread of this volleyball game even continues to the state-another country. Brazil, Russia, China, Asia, and Europe is the containers in which the volleyball game became a very popular sport.



Sports volleyball game played on a rectangular field. Along with continued development of volleyball game, then the international size standards and means of support in any field volleyball-determined. The standard length of a volleyball court is 18 meters, while the size of the width is 9 meters. Panjangan field is then divided in two and separated by a net mounted on two poles. Net is installed at a height of 2:43 or 2:24 meters meters. At each end of the pole will typically installed an antenna. This antenna will be limiting sideways movement of the ball or wide. Net which has a width of one meter wide in the middle of the field installed. Size of 2:43 meters commonly used in men's volleyball match, while in grade daughter usually use the net with 2:24 meters altitude. However, in the junior class competitions as well as veterans are usually high net varies. For the class competition, the high net can usually be adjusted again.

In volleyball field line technical term is "3 feet" from the net. The line serves as a boundary attack (attack line). 3-meter line is then split the field into two parts, namely the back row (back row), and front row (front row). Then, in each part of it (back row and front row) is still divided into 6 zones or 6 points. In the sixth area or point that is what is the position of volleyball players. Area "1" is a position player who will do the next service. strategi.jpgSetiap turn of the turn for service, the players must spin clockwise direction to turn to do the service. By doing laps with a clockwise direction, then the player in first position will be replaced by players who previously occupied the second position. While the players who originally occupied the position 1 will be shifted into position 6, and so on.

In volleyball court rules there is a term free zones (free zones). This free zone is an area that surrounds the area of ​​the team. The players can enter and play in the free zone that has at least 3 meters wide with a free, after one of his players do the service. Team area boundaries are indicated by using lines drawn on the ground. While the area of ​​the attack was in the area. The lines of the area teams will also determine whether the ball that falls will be declared "in" or "out". If the ball is still touching the line falls area team, the ball is declared "go", and the opposing team will gain value. However, if the ball falls outside the team area without touching the team area, the ball is declared "out".


As the name implies, "Volleyball", then the ball is one of the most vital equipment in this game. Standard ball used in volleyball games are usually made of leather. In addition to using genuine leather, making the ball usually also use artificial leather. The ball is then filled with air (pumped). The requirements of this standard balls in accordance with regulations issued by the FIVB (Federation Internationale de Volleyball), the International Volleyball Federation which deal with matters relating to the sport volleyball game. In addition to establishing rules of the game volleyball, FIVB also regulate volleyball matches an international scale. FIVB headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland, and was founded in 1947 in Paris, France. The following is issued by the FIVB regulations regarding the use of standard ball in a volleyball game:

* The ball has a circumference of a circle 65 to 67 cm, weighing 260 to 280 grams.

* The pressure inside of the ball should be around 0:30 to 0325 kg/cm2 (4.26-4.61 psi, 294.3-318.82 mbar or hPa).

* The ball has a circumference of a circle 65 to 67 cm, weighing 260 to 280 grams.

* The pressure inside of the ball should be around 0:30 to 0325 kg/cm2 (4.26-4.61 psi, 294.3-318.82 mbar or hPa).

Playing Technics

In volleyball game there are two teams facing each other. The number of players who are on each team is 6 people. In addition, in one team usually also carry 3 to 6 people reserve players. Usually, the game begins with a coin toss system, namely the referee tossed a coin two sides to the air,

then catch it again in a state closed by hand. Both team representatives will be asked to guess the picture side of the coin is visible. For those who answer correctly, then timnyalah entitled to be a server (which is to serve out the first time).

To do service, a player from the server team who are in position 1 outside line getting into the back edge of the field. The player throws the ball into the air, then bounced and hit him until the opponent falls in the area (across the net), and should not be out of the field lines that have been determined opponent. If the exit line then the ball will be declared out or "out", and the opponent will get one point. Once the ball got to the area of ​​the opponent, then the opponent will receive or hold the ball in a manner "bump" or "pass" (passing). "Bump" or "pass" is to hold the ball with both arms held together at the front (passing). In circumstances forced, receiving the ball can be done using any limbs.

In an effort to return the ball, each team must try the most to do a combination of three punches. That is, the first recipient of the ball must do our best to direct the ball to the setter. Setter is a player who served to give the bait a good ball to the attacker or spiker (striker). Setter will lift the ball by using the strength of his fingertips, who also plays her wrist. In this case, the setter should be able to make a motion that he feed the ball to the attacker moving with focused and calm, not spinning. -Setter must first read the motion prefix (square off) that have been taken by the attacker. So the setter can give feed the ball in the right direction, and with the appropriate height. After the ball bounced, the attacker will immediately jump up and attack a smash hit or a spike in the direction opposite area. Spike is a jump with one hand raised above his head, then hit the ball that was bounced in the air over the net towards the opponent's area, so the ball will fall in the area of ​​the opponent with a hard and fast. In addition to energy needed technical excellence and good, the sharpness of the attacker the ability to read situations in the field as if going to spike is also very necessary. Because then, the attacker will be able to direct the ball into the opponent's area that looked weak or empty. Attack of the spiker is what counted as the third blow. Although not performed on the third blow to spike, but the ball should still have crossed into the opposite area. If the ball has not crossed into the opposite area after the third blow, it will be regarded as a violation. So the ball will move to the opposing team, and any other team-will get extra points. The team that carried out the attack is called the team "offense", or team attacker.

Opponents of the team "offense" is the team "defense", ie the team that conduct defense by preventing the ball so as not to enter or fall in the area. Defense used by the defense team called a block (block). Block performed by players who are first or near the net. When the attacker from doing spike team offense, team defense jump forward with both hands raised upward, toward the end of the net. With both hands that prevent or hinder the defense team (block) the ball is in the spike so as not to enter or fall in the area. In performing this block, players must also be able to read Where the ball will be directed, so the ball will not pass block with ease. However, sometimes the ball was still able to pass block. It is caused by several factors, such as ball position higher than the block, which dispike spinning ball, or because of his weak block. In the circumstances the ball managed to penetrate the block, then the defense team will usually try to remain able to control the ball in order not to fall or get into the area. If the ball that managed to penetrate the block can still be saved with ease, then the other players will welcome the ball with a pass or bump. However, if the ball moves with unstable or somewhat difficult to achieve, then usually the player will do the dig to save the ball. Dig in fact almost identical to pass, that hold and pass the ball to the setter. However, it is usually done using one arm. Dig usually carried out in urgent situations, namely when the ball hard to reach or difficult to control. When the defense team has successfully controlled the ball, the game situation will change. The team survived (defense) will change into a team attacker (offense), and vice versa, the team that originally attacked the will to change into the last team (defense).

The game will continue with the steps as above, until the ball touches one of the team area in accordance with the rules of volleyball games that have been determined. Or until there is a violation committed by a player from one of the teams that competed.
Violation Forms

* The third blow on the ball should be able to lead and over the net into the opponent's area. If after being beaten three times but the ball still has not moved into the area of ​​the opponent, then this is considered as a violation.

* Each player is only allowed to touch the ball as much as one-time, before it passed to another player. If a player touches the ball more than once before the ball is passed to another player (deliberately or not), then this is considered as a violation. Touching the ball when performing block is not counted as a blow, then the player who touched the ball when performing block is still allowed to directly touch or hit the ball that came out of his block.

* Violation of the others is the use of more than 8 seconds while performing a service.

* If the player holding, lifting, or carrying the ball (touching the ball for a long time, not hit him), then this is considered as a violation.

* Spike is done by players on the back row, while the ball is directly above the net will be declared as a violation. This can be done if the player jumps from behind the attack line (line 3 meters), in this case the player is allowed to land in front of the line of attack.

* Hitting the ball is still there in the area of ​​the opponent is expressed as an error.

* Touching the net with any part of the body (except hair), when the game is in progress will be declared as a violation.

* Violation of the other is when the ball landed (fall) in the outer area of ​​the same team, that team who last touched the ball.

* If in a team no one to receive, hold, or control the ball which is passed from the opposite side, then it is expressed as a violation. The incident of this kind, usually occurs as a result of a misunderstanding between the players are equally near the ball crash site.

* Violation is sometimes also carried out by a volleyball player is to block or spike the ball over the net that has not completely, when the opposing team servicing.
* Other actions that are considered as a mistake is when a player on the back row to join the block with the players on the front row.

* If the next player from the server team jump, block movement, or standing adjacent to each other when one player from his team conducted a service in order to obstruct views of the opposing team, then it is also expressed as a violation. The team will get a warning from the referee.

* Violation is another leg position players who are in the field, or stepping on the field behind the line while performing a service (before the ball over the net).

* A libero can only play in the back row. If he does block or spike the ball right at the top of the net, then it will be declared as a violation.
* Error position players during the service will be declared as a violation. However, after the service is done then the players can adjust their positions based on rules set.
* The existence of a physical brawl between players and one team with players from the opposing team will be declared as a violation.


* One team will gain value automatically if the ball falls in the line area of ​​the opponent or when the opposing team made a mistake. In this regulation not previously meperhitungkan Which team do the service. After that, the ball will move into the hands of opponents, and fight with the next team will do the next service.

* If the service previously performed by the team that obtained a value, then the next service will still be performed by the same player, who had previously done service.

* Position players must spin clockwise direction if the services previously performed by a team that earn points. Thus, the service will be done by players who previously occupied the area 1.

* The game in each set will end when one team earn points 25. Additional 2 points will be given when both teams get the same points on the points 24.

* Normally, the match will take place in 5 sets. In the first set to set to-4 will be played to 25 points. While on the set of the 5th, the game will only be played to 15 points. Additional 2 points will be awarded if both teams get the same point, namely at points 14.

* Sometimes, the assessment system in every tournament or game is different. At the high school level and professional games usually only take place up to 3 sets, with total points to 30 points.

Regulation of the use of 25 points just entered into force in 1999. Previously, the game is only held to 15 points in each set. In addition, teams earn points that were previously only team to do service. When the server team makes a mistake, then the opposing team will not gain extra points. These errors will only cause it to move the ball (opposing team who will do the next service.) And when it attacks one of the teams is declared "go", the team still will not get extra if the services previously performed by the team as well. The attack, which declared "go" it will only result in moving the ball only. The team is just an opportunity to do further service. Changes in regulations made by the FIVB in 1999, and began officially established in 2000.

Libero is a member of a volleyball team who have been trained and formed specifically to be a player who has high defense capability. One player who is tasked with maintaining and improving the team's defense when receiving a service as well as get a spike attack from his opponent's team. Libero was first introduced internationally in 1998, who then introduced again by the NCAA in 2002. NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) is an athlete volunteer organization governed by several colleges and national universities. NCAA head office is located in Indianapolis, Indiana. The word "libero" itself actually comes from the Italian meaning "free."

Libero, a player who has specialized to improve this team's defense, are not allowed to make block or attack when the ball is directly above the net. Nevertheless, the libero can replace the function setter function within certain limits. When a libero want to perform overhand (provide feedback to spike the attacker), the libero position should be behind the 3-meter line, the position of libero is not allowed to step foot 3-meter line. As for the underpass (passing below), the libero can do so in all areas of the field.

A libero is a person who should have the physical stamina is quite excellent, and of course must have the ability to survive as well. Because, libero who will resist more attacks fast and hard and sharp from the opponent. A libero also must always maintain vigilance against the attacks a hoax that may be incurred by the opposing team. The quality of a libero has an enormous influence on a team. The more stable the quality of a libero, the more stronger it's defense a volleyball team. And the stronger the defense of a team, the team also will be able to increase the quantity and quality of attacks.
Recent Rule Changes

Volleyball game that continues to increase and develop from time to time also has undergone many changes, mainly in the form of the game rules. Some of the changes in regulation volleyball game also occurred in 2000. One of the changes that occurred in 2000 it was the rule in doing service. Services at the volleyball game that was originally only be done from outside the field behind the right, when it was removed. In 2000, service on a volleyball game can be done from the right, left, and center, outside the rear field. Changes in the form of expansion of the service area is of course has an effect quite different for volleyball players. Because, they will more easily adjust the position according to their comfort when going to perform service. And this change, of course, also very big impact once for the left-handed volleyball players.

To reduce the percentage of violations in terms of carrying and double-hit (double blow), then in 2000 the reform legislation has also been done about it.

Other regulatory changes are still going back in February of 2008. At that time, the NCAA has made changes to the regulatory assessment at the college level. NCAA rules already merubahan value originally 30 points to 25 points. As for the match on the set of the 5th did not change, the game will still be held to 15 points.

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